Glaucoma is a leading cause of permanent blindness worldwide. It is caused by damage to the optic nerve from elevated eye pressure. The optic nerve transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. Damage to the optic nerve leads to a progressive deterioration of eyesight over time, starting with peripheral vision. The onset of glaucoma often occurs with age, although there are many additional risk factors including: family history, thin corneas, diabetes, eye inflammation, trauma, and others.
Glaucoma is mainly a silent disease. Many patients do not experience any symptoms until the later stages of the disease. When symptoms do occur, however, they can include:
Loss of peripheral vision
Hazy or blurred vision
The appearance of rainbow-colored circles around bright lights
Severe eye and head pain accompanied by nausea or vomiting
Sudden sight loss